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The hypothesis of linguistic relativity holds that the structure of a language affects its speakers’ world view or cognition. Also known as the Sapir–Whorf. Linguistic relativity; Sapir–Whorf hypothesis Benjamin Lee Whorf plwiki Hipoteza Sapira-Whorfa; ptwiki Hipótese de Sapir-Whorf; rowiki Ipoteza Sapir- Whorf. Hipoteza Sapira-Whorfa (ang. Sapir–Whorf hypothesis), in. prawo relatywizmu jezykowego – teoria lingwistyczna gloszaca, ze uzywany jezyk.

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For Immanuel Kantlanguage was but one of several tools used by humans to experience the world.

He argued that language is often used metaphorically and that languages use different cultural metaphors that reveal something about how speakers of that language think.

Their two tenets were i “the world is differently experienced and conceived in different linguistic communities” and ii “language causes a particular cognitive structure”.

Index of language articles.

Space is another semantic domain that has proven fruitful for linguistic relativity studies. Researchers examine the interface between thought or cognitionlanguage and culture and describe the relevant influences. Linguistic relativity inspired aapira-whorfa to consider whether thought could be influenced by manipulating language. An amateur linguist loses control of the language he invented”. Linguistic relativity and the color naming debate.

Linguistic relativity – Wikipedia

The speakers of these languages belong to four distinct culture areas The hypothesis of linguistic relativity holds that the structure of a language affects its speakers’ world view or cognition.

Gumperz, John; Levinson, Stephen, eds. More recent research in this vein is Lucy’s research describing how usage of the categories of grammatical number and of numeral classifiers in the Mayan language Yucatec result in Mayan speakers classifying objects according to material rather than to shape as preferred by English speakers.


Augustinefor example, held the view that language was merely labels applied to already existing concepts. Plato held instead that the world consisted of eternal ideas and that language should reflect these ideas as accurately as possible. Lenneberg’s main criticism of Whorf’s works was that he never showed the connection between a linguistic phenomenon and a mental phenomenon. The categories and types that we isolate from the world of phenomena we do not find there because they stare every observer in the face; on the contrary, the world is presented in a kaleidoscope flux of impressions which has to be organized by our minds—and this means largely by the linguistic systems of our minds.

Linguistic relativity

Some overlooked rationales and forefathers”, in J. The idea was first clearly expressed by 19th-century thinkers, such as Wilhelm von Humboldtwho saw language as the expression of the spirit of a nation. He concluded that this was related to the way in which counter-factuality is marked grammatically in Chinese. In this way, it could be determined whether the differing color categories of the two speakers would determine their ability to recognize nuances within color categories.

The lineaments of their language will thus correspond to the direction of their mentality.

Another question is whether language is a tool for representing and referring to objects in the hipotwza, or whether it is a system used to construct mental representations that can be communicated. He described four parameters on which researchers differed in their opinions about what constitutes linguistic relativity:.

Examples of universalist influence in the s are the studies by Berlin and Kay who continued Lenneberg’s color research. The book included studies on the linguistic relativity and universalist traditions. Color and Cognition in Mesoamerica: Bowerman showed that certain cognitive processes did not use language to any significant extent and therefore could not be subject to linguistic relativity.


Whorf died in at age 44, leaving multiple unpublished papers. Introduction to language development. Shibboleth authentication is only available to registered institutions. Universalism and Universalism and relativism of color terminology.

Hipoteza Sapira-Whorfa – przegląd argumentów zwolenników i przeciwników

Pinker and other universalists have been accused by relativists of misrepresenting Whorf’s views and arguing against strawmen. Constructed languages and Experimental languages. He concluded that the debate had been confused. Archived from the original on 10 July Category Task Force Discussion. Grammatical gender and object concepts”, in R. With Brown, Lenneberg proposed that proving such sapira-wyorfa connection required directly matching linguistic phenomena with behavior.

However, a common genius prevails everywhere among people speaking the same language. Johann Georg Hamann is often suggested to be the first among the actual German Romantics to speak of the concept of “the genius hipotezz a language. Uses editors parameter CS1 maint: Brown”The Language of Experience: He further noticed that while no employees smoked cigarettes in the room for full barrels, no-one minded smoking in the room with empty barrels, although this was potentially much more dangerous because of the highly flammable vapors still in the barrels.